اخبار
  • فراخوان برگزاری سمپوزیوم كشوري بیولوژی تولید مثل
    مباحث مورد بحث در سمپوزيوم شامل : آندرولوژی آزمایشگاهی، انجماد، سلولهای بنیادی ، کلونینگ، پیوند اعضاء تولید مثل، ژنتیک تولیدمثل ، جنین آزمایشگاهی ، IVM و بیولوژی باروری می باشد.
  • تجهیز و راه اندازی مقدماتی آزمایشگاه نانوتکنولوژی پژوهشکده علوم تولید مثل
    با برنامه ریزی، تلاش و همت مسئولین پژوهشکده علوم تولید مثل و دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید صدوقی یزد، آزمایشگاه نانوتکنولوژی در حال تجهیز و راه اندازی مقدماتی است.
  • پژوهشکده علوم تولیدمثل یزد , میزبان برگزاری تورهای علمی استانی و کشوری
    در راستای تحقق اهداف و سیاست های کلی برنامه توسعه کشور و به منظور تقویت روحیه نشاط و همکاری علمی در بین دانشجویان پژوهشگر و ایجاد ارتقای روحیه تحقیق و خودباوری و آشنا نمودن انشجویان با روش های ART)کمک باروری (در درمان زوج های نابارور، تاکنون پژوهشکده علوم تولیدمثل یزد میزبان تورهای علمی تحقیقاتی دانشجویان بوده است.
  • تعییر آدرس وب سایت مرکز تحقیقاتی و درمانی ناباروری یزد
    آدرس سايت مركز ناباروری یزد به http://yazd-rsi.ir تغيير كرده است.
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  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Background: Increase in world population is one of the serious and threatening issues in this century. Therefore, it is vitally important to find safe and effective contraceptive methods, especially for men which already have few choices in this regard. Medicinal plants that were used for contraception in ancient times could be good sources of investigation in this filed. Ruta graveolens L. is one the plants introduced in the Iranian traditional medicine as an oral male contraception to be used before intercourse. In this study we tried to investigate the probable effects of the plant on the spermatozoa of male rats.
    Methods: Ruta graveolens L. aqueous extract (5 g/kg) was administered orally to five groups of male rats and sperm motility was checked after half, one, two, four and six hours later. Moreover, one group of rats served as the control group. Subsequently, viability of cells (Eosin-Nigrosin staining), morphological changes (Diff-Quick staining), DNA status (acridine orange dye) and serum testosterone levels were assessed in the treated groups which had significant immotile spermatozoa. For statistical analysis, Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test were employed for comparison between groups. 
    Results: A significant reduction in sperm motility was seen one hour after administration of the extract in the case groups compared to the controls (36% vs. 68.15%, respectively, p <0.01). The motility gradually increased afterwards, and by 6 hours, it was the same as the control group (65.43% and 68.15%, respectively). No significant changes were seen in viability, morphology or DNA structure of spermatozoa in each group. Testosterone levels did not show any significant changes in the treated groups when compared with the controls.
    Conclusion: Since a significant temporary immobility of spermatozoa without any adverse effects on other sperm characteristics occurred upon the administration of Ruta graveolens L. aqueous extract, it seems that this plant might have the potential to be used for the suggested male contraception.
     

    نویسندگان: Iman Halvaei , Hamid Reza Sadeghipour Roodsari , Zhila Naghibi Harat
    کلید واژه ها: Male contraception, Rat, Ruta graveolens L., Sperm function assay, Spermatozoa, Iranian traditional medicine
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    The aim of present study was to examine the possible relationship between sperm DNA integrity/chromatin packaging evaluated by cytochemical assays, traditional sperm parameters and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSR) of unknown origin.
    Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 40 couples with a history of RSA and 40 couples with proven fertility were considered as case and control groups respectively. The semen samples of all husbands were analyzed for sperm parameters and sperm chromatin and DNA integrity assessed using cytochemical tests including aniline blue (AB), chromomycin A3 (CMA3), toluidine blue (TB), acridine orange (AOT) and nuclear chromatin stability assay.
    Results: Among different sperm parameters, only slow motility was significantly different between two groups. In sperm chromatin evaluations, there were significant differences between two groups at all of the tests. In addition, the majority of semen samples in RSA patients exhibited upper percentages of abnormal spermatozoa than the cut-off values regarding different cytochemical assays.
    Conclusion: Our study showed that in the cases of RSA slow motility had a significant reduction in comparison with controls and also spermatozoa of men from RSA group had less chromatin condensation and poorer DNA integrity than spermatozoa which obtained from fertile men with no history of RSA

    نویسندگان: VAHIDI S.,TALEBI A.R.,GHASEMZADEH J
    کلید واژه ها: RECURRENT SPONTANEOUS ABORTION, SPERM DNA INTEGRITY, SPERM CHROMATIN CONDENSATION, CYTOCHEMICAL TESTS
  • خلاصه مقاله:

     

    Conventional IVF and ICSI are two common techniques to achieve fertilization. IVF has long been used for treatment of infertility, although it is not an effective treatment in severe male infertility. The use of ICSI has been expanded in severe male factor and fertilization failure after IVF cycle. In spite of the widespread use of ICSI in patients with non-male factor infertility, there is still little evidence to confirm its effectiveness in this population.

    Objective: To evaluate assisted reproductive technology outcomes between IVF and ICSI cycles in non-male factor, normoresponder patients.

    Materials and Methods: A total of 220 non-male factors, normoresponder patients who were indicated for ART were enrolled in this study. The patients received standard long GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist protocols for ovarian stimulation and after oocytes retrieval, the patients were divided into two groups (IVF and ICSI groups). In IVF group (n=112), all of retrieved oocytes were treated by conventional IVF and in ICSI group (n=88), microinjection (ICSI) was done on all of retrieved oocytes.

    Results: In IVF group, fertilization and implantation rates were significantly higher than ICSI group (66.22% and 16.67% in IVF group versus 57.46% and 11.17% in ICSI group, respectively). Chemical and clinical pregnancy rates were statistically higher in IVF group as compared with the ICSI group (42.9% vs. 27.3% and 35.7% vs. 21.5%, respectively).

    Conclusion: According to our study, the routine use of ICSI is not improved fertilization, implantation and chemical pregnancy rates and is not recommended in non-male factor, normozoospermic patients.

    نویسندگان: EFTEKHAR MARYAM,MOHAMMADIAN FARNA,YOUSEFNEJAD FARIBA,MOLAEI BEHNAZ,AFLATOONIAN ABBAS
    کلید واژه ها: INFERTILITY, ICSI, IN-VITRO FERTILIZATION, FERTILIZATION, PREGNANCY RATE
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Introduction: Cervical ripening for labor induction is one of the . The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy profile of with low dose syntocinon for cervical ripening at labor.

    Methods:  women were randomly assigned to two groups that received either vaginal isosorbide mononitrate tablets 40 mg (n= 50) or low-dose syntocinon (n= 50) with simplification method. Effectiveness of each agent was the cervical ripening effect and the time from initiation of the treatment to delivery that were compared between two groups. Efficacy and safety outcomes were compared in two groups. by t-test and  with SPSS software version 15.

    Results: The results showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding mean of age and gestational age (with sonography and Last Menstrual Period). Mean of cervical ripening time was 36.13±4.057 hours in isosorbide mononitrate group and 36.28±3.886 hours in low–dose syntocinon group (P=0.876). There was no significant difference in mode of delivery (cesarean or vaginal) between two groups. The most common side effect in isosorbide mononitrate group was light headache (70%) and in low-dose syntosinon group it was (4%). One and five minute’s neonatal apgar were similar in two groups.

    Conclusion: Use of vaginal isosorbide mononitrate was as effective as low dose syntocinon in cervical ripening can be used as an effective, simple, low cost and safety method in cervical ripening.

    نویسندگان: Raziah Dehghani Firouzabadi, Leila Sekhavat, Mohamad Ghafoorzadah, Raziaosadat Tabatabaii, Tahminah Farajkhoda
    کلید واژه ها: Isosorbide mononitrate; Low dose syntocinon; Cervical ripening; Labor
  • خلاصه مقاله:

     ايران از غنی‌ترين مناطق دنيا از حيث تعداد و تنوع گياهان دارويی می‌باشد و زيره سبز جزء گياهان دارويی مهم و اقتصادی کشورمان به شمار می‌رود که دارای خواص درمانی از قبيل ضد تشنج، ضد صرع، تقويت‌کننده معده، ادرار آور، ضد نفخ و سوء هاضمه می‌باشد. هدف اين پژوهش، شناسايی و تعيين درصد ترکيبات تشکيل دهنده و خواص آنتی‌اکسيدانی اسانس بذر اين گياه بومی ارزشمند استان يزد می‌باشد. روش بررسی: در اين مطالعه آزمايشگاهی، بذرهای زيره سبز کوه‌های جنوب غربی بهاباد استان يزد به روش تقطير با آب(دستگاه کلونجر) اسانس‌گيری شدند. جداسازی وشناسايی ترکيبات با استفاده از روش‌های کروماتوگرافی گازی و کروماتوگرافی گازی متصل به طيف سنج جرمی انجام شد. خواص آنتی‌اکسيدانی اسانس بذر به روش تخريب راديکال‌های آزاد سنجيده شد و برای اندازه‌گيری مقدار کل ترکيبات فنولی از روش Follin- Ciocalteu استفاده گرديد. نتايج: مواد عمده تشکيل دهنده اسانس بذر زيره سبز پروپانول(9/26%) و بنزن متانول(4/25%) و فنيل بتانول(49/16%) و گاماترپنين(04/13%) می‌باشد. خواص آنتی‌اکسيدان ميزان IC50 49/1 ميکروگرم بر ميلی‌ليتر اسانس و همچنين ميزان ترکيبات فنولی با 22/90 ميلی‌گرم گاليک اسيد بر گرم اسانس تشخيص داده شد. نتيجه‌گيری: پروپانول که بيشترين ترکيب تشکيل دهنده اسانس بود کاربردهای مهمی در صنايع و داروسازی دارد. نتايج اين مطالعه با حاکی از برتری خواص آنتی اکسيدانی زيره سبز بومی استان يزد در مقايسه با نتايج مطالعات پيشين در همين زمينه در مناطق ديگر دارد.

    نویسندگان: بی‌بی فاطمه حقيرالسادات ، عليرضا وحيدی ، محمدحسين صبور ، مصطفی عظيم‌زاده ، سيد مهدی کلانتر و مريم شرف‌الدينی
    کلید واژه ها: زيره سبز، Cuminum cyminum، تركيبات اسانس، خواص آنتی‌اکسیدان، بومی يزد،
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presentation of uterine abnormalities among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. 

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of saline contrast sonohysterography and hysteroscopy for detecting the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding. 

    Materials and Methods: A total of 65 women with abnormal uterine bleeding were enrolled in this study. A prior saline contrast sonohysetrography followed by a hysteroscopy was performed in all cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and test accuracy were calculated. 

    Results: As the most common abnormality, SCSH showed hyperplasia in 19 patients while hysteroscopy diagnosed polyp in 15 cases. A sensitivity of 73.3%, 71.4% and 90.9% were reported for polyp, hyperplasia and submucous myoma respectively whereas the specificity was calculated 96% for polyps, 82.3% for hyperplasia and 90.7% for submucous myoma. 

    Conclusion: Comparing with hysteroscopy, sonohysterography showed a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting submucous myoma but not for endometrial polyp and endometrial hyperplasia.

    نویسندگان: Karimzadeh, MA (Karimzadeh, Mohammad Ali); Firouzabadi, RD (Firouzabadi, Razieh Dehghani); Goharzad, F (Goharzad, Farzaneh)
    کلید واژه ها: Abnormal uterine bleeding; Uterine abnormalities; Sonohysterography; Hysteroscopy
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Background: Fertilization failure is one of the most problems in assisted reproduction technology (ART).
    Objective: The aim of this study was the evaluation of oocytes activation by addition of calcium ionophore in unfertilized oocytes in ICSI cycles.
    Materials and Methods: This study was done on 15 ICSI cycles (stimulated with standard long protocol). Mature retrieved oocytes with normal morphology that had no evidence of fertilization 24 hours after ICSI were included in the study. The oocytes with fertilization and unfertilized oocytes with degeneration were excluded from the study. The unfertilized oocytes were washed with GIVF medium and were transferred to GIVF medium that contained 5 
    mmol of calcium ionophore and were incubated for 10 minutes. Then again oocytes were washed with GIVF medium and consequently were transferred to GIVF medium and were incubated at 37oC in 6% CO2. After 18 hours, the oocytes were examined and activated oocytes were defined with observation of at least one pronucleus or cleaved oocytes.
    Results: After ovarian stimulation and oocytes retrieval, 175 mature oocytes were obtained and injection of sperm was done for all of them.114 of 175 oocytes (66%) showed evidence of fertilization after 24 hours. A total of 61 oocytes (34%) showed no evidence of fertilization and 10 oocytes were degenerated and were excluded from the study. Only 51 unfertilized oocytes with normal morphology were selected and were exposed to calcium ionophore.37 (72.5%) of treated oocytes were fertilized (2PN) and 32 (62.7%) of them showed evidence of cleavage.6 (11.8%) embryos had good quality.
    Conclusion: According to our results, oocytes activation with calcium ionophore had an acceptable fertilization rate, however high quality embryos remained low. We propose future studies to evaluate embryo quality.

    نویسندگان: EFTEKHAR MARYAM,MOHAMMADIAN FARNAZ,YOUSEFNEJAD FARIBA,KHANI PARISA,AFLATOONIAN ABBAS
    کلید واژه ها: CALCIUM IONOPHORE, UNFERTILIZED OOCYTES, ICSI CYCL
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Background and Objective: The pregnancy period is very sensitive and complicative stages of

    life. It has been shown that addictive drugs such as ecstasy (MDMA: Methylene Dioxy Metha

    Amphetamine) can interfere in this stage. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of

    Methylene Dioxy Metha Amphetamine administration during pregnancy on reproductive system

    of BALB/c mice.

    Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 10 and 5 female BALB/c mice were

    randomly selected as cases and controls, respectively. The pregnancy was induced following

    ovarian hyperstimulation with PMSG and hCG followed by mating with male animals. MDMA

    (5 mg/kg) and saline was injected intraperitoneally in day 7 and 14 of pregnancy in experimental

    and controls, respectively. The ovarian structure, as well as uterine tube, uterine horns and body,

    and vagina were studied histologically using light microscopy 27 days post delivery date. Data

    analyzed by using SPSS-17 and Chi-Square and Fisher exact test.

    Results: The rate of primary follicles was decreased from 18.42% in experimental to 33.33% in

    controls (P<0.05). The rate of mature follicles was significantly increased in experimental mice

    as compared to controls (P<0.05). The number of atretic bodies was lower in experimental than

    controls. The cellular alterations were observed in some portions of uterine tubes and uterine

    horns after ecstasy administration. However, no alterations observed in other parts of

    reproductive system.

    Conclusion: This study showed that MDMA cause some structural alterations in the uterine

    tubes and uterine horns, increase follicular maturation and reduction of follicular atresia in

    BALB/c mice.

    نویسندگان: Khalili MA (PhD), Mortazavi MH , Mollaabbasi AR , Lotfi-Hormozdabadi M , Akhavan-Tafti M (PhD), Safari-Mamzooji S (PhD)
    کلید واژه ها: Ecstasy, Pregnancy, Reproductive system, BALB/c mice
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Background: In previous investigations, it has been clarified that electromagnetic fields (ELF) can cause some changes in cellular behavior. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of magnetic field (MF) on human sperm parameters of motility, morphology, and viability. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from 12 fertile men, and were allowed to liquefy for 15-30 min. Each sample was then divided into two aliquots. The experimental samples were placed in the ELF, while the control one was left intact. The applied fields were pulsed with distance of 6 m/ sec and effective intensity of 1mT and different frequencies of 10, 25 and 45 Hz at different time intervals. The constant field intensity was 1mT in all experiments. Results: In frequency of 10Hz, an increase in quick motility of sperm (1.8 times) occurred after 4h; however, slow motility was decreased by 40% after 2h. Also, the quick motility increased by 1.6 times in frequency 25 Hz after 4 h, while the MF had no effect on other sperm parameters. MF had no effect on any of sperm parameters in frequency of 40 Hz in 4 h. The stimulation ratio on the sperm viability was only significant at frequency of 10 Hz after 2 h after incubation. The sperm morphology was not influenced in any of the fields. Conclusion: This study reports the existence of certain frequency windows for the resonance of the effects of the MF on human spermatozoa. Rapid motility was significantly affected by the exposure of spermatozoa to MF, but sperm structural parameter had remained intact. Iran. J. Radiat. Res., 2011; 9(3): 195-200

    نویسندگان: Falahati, SA (Falahati, S. A.); Anvari, M (Anvari, M.); Khalili, MA (Khalili, M. A.)
    کلید واژه ها: FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC-FIELDS; MALE RATS; IN-VITRO; FERTILITY
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Background and objective: One of the causes of male infertility is the lack of proper mobility. One way to deal with this problem is to add adenosine to human sperms in the laboratory. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of different doses of adenosine on sperm motility in the ejaculates of fertile and infertile individuals. Materials and Methods: In this experimental laboratory study, 60 samples of seminal fluid of infertile and fertile men who referred to Yazd Infertility Center were analyzed according to WHO guidelines. Sperm counts, morphology and motility (fast, slow and immotile) were studied. After using Swim-up technique, the washed samples were divided into 4 groups, containing doses of 0, 2, 5 and 10 mg adenosine. The sperm parameters were evaluated after the addition of adenosine. Data were analyzed statistically using paired Ttest and independent T-test. Results: The initial assessment indicated significant differences in sperm parameters, except for slow motility between the two groups. In fertile group, dose of 5 mg adenosine increased sperm count, and rapid motility, but lowered the rates of sperm immotility at doses of 5 and 10 mg. In the infertile group, sperm count improved at dose of 5 mg adenosine, but it showed no effect on slow sperm motility. 5 mg adenosine also improved rapid sperm motility, but dose of 10 mg had no effect. Both 5 and 10 mg adenosine significantly lowered rates of immotile sperms. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that addition of 5 mg adenosine to washed sperms can improve sperm motility of infertile men in vitro.

    نویسندگان: Vahidi, A.R, Khalili, M.A , Amini-Rad, O
    کلید واژه ها: Adenosine; Male infertility; Sperm motility
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that morphology of the first polar body (1(st) PB) is related to oocyte viability, which can be used as a prognostic tool to predict oocyte performance and pregnancy outcomes in an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) program. According to some studies, there is a correlation between oocyte performance and 1(st) PB morphology, while others have not reported any correlation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of 1(st) PB morphology on rates of fertilization and embryo development in ICSI cases. 

    Materials and Methods: In this prospective study morphological characteristics of 470 metaphase II (Mu) oocytes were assessed in 80 ICSI cycles. The women were ages 21-42 years (mean 32.6 +/- 0.2). Their oocytes were retrieved after a hyperstimulation protocol. After denudation, all oocytes were evaluated for 1(st) PB morphology. The oocytes were divided into two groups of A (normal 1(st) PB) and B (abnormal fragmented 1(st) PB). In addition, other abnormalities, such as refractile bodies (RF), wide previtelline space (wPVS), central and general granulation, bull's eye, vacuole, smooth endoplasmic reticulum cluster (SERc), debris in PVS, shape and dark oocyte were checked. For verifying of fertilization, about 18-19 hours post-ICSI, oocytes were checked for two-pronuclear. Assessments of embryo quality, development and embryo transfer were done at day two. Chi-square, Fisher's exact and independent sample t tests were chosen for statistical analysis. 

    Results: Twenty-seven percent of oocytes had fragmented 1(st) PB, while the remainder was associated with other morphological abnormalities. A total of 46.1% and 26.9% of oocytes showed double and multiple defects, respectively. RF was the most common abnormality observed in group B. No significant differences in women's' ages between groups A and B were noted (p=0.3). A. total of 179 and 107 oocytes (61.5% vs. 59.8%) were fertilized in groups A and B, respectively (p=0.7). The rates of good embryo formation for A and B groups were 66.5% and 55.6% (p=0.07), and cleavage rates were 77.7% and 68.5%, respectively (p=0.09). 

    Conclusion: The data demonstrated that 1(st) PB morphology does not appear to be a prognostic factor for rates of fertilization and embryo development in ICSI cycles.

    نویسندگان: Halvaei, I (Halvaei, Iman); Khalili, MA (Khalili, Mohammad Ali); Soleimani, M (Soleimani, Mehrdad); Razi, MH (Razi, Mohammad Hossein)
    کلید واژه ها: First Polar Body; Oocyte Morphology; ICSI; Fertilization Rate; Embryo Development
  • خلاصه مقاله:

     

    Background: The prevalence of infertility is variable between 5-30% around the world. In Iran, more than 2 million couples suffer from infertility. Infertility causes depression, anxiety, social isolation and sexual dysfunction.

    Objective: This descriptive study was undertaken to determine general health in infertile couples.

    Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty infertile couples attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility were randomly selected during March till September 2009. The GHQ-28 questionnaires were completed by researchers, based on face to face interview. It contains 28 items, which have been divided to four sub- items. The results come out by scoring the patients answer from 0 to 84. All data were analyzed by Chi-square and t-test in SPSS software.

    Results: GHQ scores of all sub-scales and total in women were more than men, which shows general health condition in women is worse than men. There was no relation between the duration of infertility and general health scores.

    Conclusion: This study suggests that the infertility has significant effect (p=0.001) on health situation of infertile couples, especially infertile women. They are at risk of somatic symptoms (p=0.0001), social dysfunction (p=0.0001) and severe depression (p=0.0001). GHQ could provided help and support in order to improve the health situation of infertile couples.

    نویسندگان: Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam Ph.D., Amir Hosein Aminian M.Sc., Ali Mohammad Abdoli M.D., Najmeh Seighal B.Sc., Hosein Falahzadeh B.Sc., Nasrin Ghasemi M.D., Ph.D.
    کلید واژه ها: GHQ-28, Infertile couples, Sub- scales of GHQ.
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Objectives: This study is carried out with the aim of describing the

    pattern of health-promoting behaviors (HPBs) among middle-aged

    women and its relevant factors in Iran as a Muslim developing country.

    Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 483 middle-aged women were

    selected using cluster random sampling from Yazd city in Central Iran.

    An adjusted Persian version of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II

    was used for measuring HPBs. The demographic data were collected

    too.

    Results: The average score of middle-aged women HPBs was

    2.73 ± 0.36 (2.69 ± 2.76, %95). Spiritual growth and physical activity

    had the highest and the lowest score in HPBs' dimensions, respectively.

    HPBs had a positive significant correlation with age (p=0.02) and education

    level (p=0.001) and a negative significant correlation with number

    of children (p=0.005). HPBs had a higher level in retired women

    than employees and housewives.

    Conclusions: In spite of a desirable level of HPBs in spiritual growth

    and interpersonal relationship dimensions among this group, their level

    of HPBs in physical activity and health responsibility dimensions was

    undesirable. It means that the feature of health among Iranian middleaged

    women in a Muslim developing country is different from the industrialized

    developed and also the non-Muslim countries; hence, they

    need a different intervention programs.

    نویسندگان: Behnaz Enjezab, Ziba Farajzadegan, Fariba Taleghani, Abbas Aflatoonian,Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad
    کلید واژه ها: Health behavior, health promotion, HPLP II, Iran,middle-age, women
  • خلاصه مقاله:

     Background: Human fertility has been declined all over the world. Advanced women's age is one of the most important factors in determining the success of reproduction and ageing has negative impact on ART outcome and advanced female age decreases the chance of live birth rates achieved using ART, especially after 40 years of age. 

    Objective: To evaluate ART outcomes regarding to pregnancy, abortion, cycle cancellation and live birth rates in women 40 years and older. 

    Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed on three hundred-thirteen women undergoing ART cycles in the Madar Hospital in Yazd. Women with age >= 40 years who indicated for ART enrolled the study regardless of the infertility type or etiology. In this study, we used data from IVF or ICSI cycles using fresh embryo transfer. Follow up was performed in regard to pregnancy, abortion, cycle cancellation and live birth rates. 

    Results: The mean age of women was 41.87 +/- 1.97 years. Chemical pregnancy rate was 8.6% (27/313) per cycle. Clinical pregnancy rate was 3.8% (12/313) per cycle. Spontaneous abortion was observed in 63% (17/27) of patients with positive pregnancy test. The overall cancellation rate was 23.3% per oocytes retrieval. The overall live birth rate per cycle for all women who initiated an ART cycle at age >= 40 years was 3.2% (10/313) that eight of those women were under 42 years old. 

    Conclusion: Based on our results, we suggest that women with age 42 years and above should be advised to use other options, including oocyte donation or adoption.

    نویسندگان: Aflatoonian, A (Aflatoonian, Abbas); Eftekhar, M (Eftekhar, Maryam); Mohammadian, F (Mohammadian, Farnaz); Yousefnejad, F (Yousefnejad, Fariba)
    کلید واژه ها: Advanced age; Assisted reproductive technology; Pregnancy rate; Live birth
  • خلاصه مقاله:

     

    Background: In general, 15% of oocytes collected in ART cycles are immature. These oocytes may be cryopreserved further for use in in-vitro maturation (IVM) program.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine maturation capacity, morphometric parameters and morphology of human immature oocytes in both fresh IVM (fIVM) and vitrified-IVM (vIVM) oocytes.

    Materials and Methods: 93 women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for ART were included. The immature oocytes (n=203) were divided into two groups: the first group (n=101) directly matured in vitro; and the second group (n=102) first vitrified, then matured in vitro. All oocytes underwent IVM in Ham’s F10 supplemented with LH+FSH and human follicular fluid. After 48h of incubation, the oocyte maturation rates, as well as morphometric and morphologic characteristics were assessed using cornus imaging and were compared.

    Results: Oocyte maturation rates were reduced in vIVM, (40.4%), in comparison with fIVM (59.4%, p<0.001). Following morphometric assessment, there was no difference in the mean oocyte diameters (μm) between fIVM and vIVM, 156.3±6.8 and 154.07±9.9, respectively. Other parameters of perimeters, egg areas, as well as oocyte and ooplasm volumes were similar in two groups. In addition, more morphologic abnormalities, such as, vacuole, and dark oocyte were observed in vIVM oocytes.

    Conclusion: fIVM was more successful than vIVM groups. No statistical differences were noticed in morphometry assessment in two groups. This suggests that morphometric parameters can not be applied as prognosis factor in oocyte maturation outcome in IVM program.

    نویسندگان: Saeedeh Nazari M.Sc., Mohammad Ali Khalili Ph.D., Forouzan Esmaielzadeh M.Sc., Mehdi Mohsenzadeh M.Sc.
    کلید واژه ها: IVM, Oocyte, Vitrification, Maturation, Morphology, Morphometry
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with approximately 75% of women who suffer from infertility due to anovulation. Additionally, around 20-25% of anovulatory women with PCOS do not respond at all to clomiphene citrate and are considered to be "clomiphene-resistant". Aromatase inhibitors have been suggested as an alternative treatment to clomiphene as the discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate has been attributed to its anti-estrogenic action and estrogen receptor depletion. 

    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare results of Metformin-letrozole with Metformin-clomiphene citrate in clomiphene resistance PCOS patients undergoing IUI. 

    Materials and Methods: In this single blind randomized trial, ovarian cycles were studied in 100 clomiphene-resistant patients with PCOS. The inclusion criteria were patients who received 150mg clomiphene citrate daily for 3 cycles and failed to become pregnant. The patients were matched for their age, body mass index (BMI), and infertility period. They were randomly allocated to a metformin-letrozole group (n=50) and a metformin-clomiphene citrate group (n=50). Chemical and clinical pregnancies were assessed after IUI. Abortion rates were determined in both groups. 

    Results: Regarding pregnancy rate, there was no significant difference between the two groups. One miscarriage (2%) occurred in the metformin-clomiphene citrate group, whereas none was seen in the metformin-letrozole group. 

    Conclusion: There is no significant difference in pregnancy rate between clomiphene citrate and letrozole groups although it has been 2% in the former and 5% in the latter.

    نویسندگان: Davar, R (Davar, Robab); Javedani, M (Javedani, Mojgan); Fallahzadeh, MH (Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein)
    کلید واژه ها: Letrozole; Clomiphene citrate; Ovarian stimulation; PCO; IUI; Metformin
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Background: Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecologic disorders. It is a complex trait and both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that exposure to environmental contaminants is a risk factor for endometriosis. Glutathione-S-Transferase M1 (GSTM1) is one of the genes involved in detoxification of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Objective: Several studies have indicated an association between GSTM1 null mutation and endometriosis. In this study, the possible association between the GSTM1 gene null genotype and susceptibility to endometriosis in woman from central and southern Iran was investigated. Materials and Methods: One hundred and one unrelated premenopausal women with endometriosis and 142 unrelated healthy premenopausal women without endometriosis were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from Peripheral blood in all subjects. GSTM1 null genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: There was no significant difference between frequencies of GSTM1 null genotype in case and control groups (50.5% Vs. 52.1%, p=0.804). Furthermore, this genotype was not associated with severity of endometriosis in our sample (p=0.77). Conclusion: further studies involving gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, particularly combination of GSTM1 and other GST gene family polymorphisms are needed.

    نویسندگان: Seifati, S.M. , Parivar, K., Aflatoonian, A., Dehghani Firouzabadi, R., Sheikhha, M.H.
    کلید واژه ها: Endometriosis; Glutathione-S-transferase M1; Null genotype
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Background: We conducted this study to compare the outcome of assisted reproductive technology

    (ART) procedures and recovery from anesthesia in women who received opioid analgesia with

    remifentanil versus fentanyl.

    Materials and Methods: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out in

    the Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility, Yazd, Iran. We studied 145 women

    who were participants in an ART program. During the first phase of the study, all patients

    underwent induction of anesthesia with thiopental and received analgesia with remifentanil

    or fentanyl. The primary endpoint was pregnancy rate per transfer. The numbers of oocytes

    collected, fertilized and cleaved were recorded, as was the number of oocytes transferred

    and recovery profile. In the second phase of the study, all patients were followed for

    outcome of ART cycle.

    Results: This study suggested that in women undergoing transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte

    retrieval procedures, the likelihood of a successful pregnancy was higher with a remifentanil-based

    monitored anesthesia care (MAC) technique than with a fentanyl-based MAC technique. The

    recovery from anesthesia was significantly better in the remifentanil group versus fentanyl group.

    Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that remifentanil in clinical practice is superior to

    fentanyl (Registeration Number: IRCT201009283468N3).

    نویسندگان: Mohammad Hossein Jarahzadeh, M.D., Robab Davar M.D.,Mohammad Reza Hajiesmaeili, M.D., Ahmad Entezari, B.Sc., Fatemeh Musavi, B.Sc.
    کلید واژه ها: Analgesia, Assisted Reproductive Technologies, Fentanyl, Remifentanil
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Introduction: In traditional medicine, saffron is used as a drug for treating many diseases. However there

    are many documents and evidences concerning its abortive and teratogenic effect especially in high doses.

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of saffron decoction consumption on pregnant mice

    and their offspring.

    Methods: In this study, 20 female mice after breeding and observation of vaginal plaque, randomly and

    equally divided into two groups. During pregnancy, animals were housed under the same environmental and

    nutritional condition while the test group received 0.5% saffron decoction as their drinks instead of tape

    water for control group. The pregnant mice were weighted during pregnancy and after delivery. Following

    the parturition, the number of live kids, their weight and sex and any pretended obvious abnormality were

    assigned.

    Results: The duration of pregnancy period and the number of live kids in test group were significantly less

    than control group while the mean infant’s weight in test group was more than control group. There was

    obvious one-eye blindness in 4 kids from saffron consumed group. In the case of mother's weight and sex

    ratio of live kids there was no significant difference between the two groups.

    Conclusion: This study indicated that saffron has a specific teratogenic effect on visual system and causes

    preterm labor and reduces the number of live infants which may be due to its abortive effect.

     

    نویسندگان: Dashti-Rahmatabadi MH(PhD), Nahangi H(PhD), Oveisi M(MD), Anvari M(PhD)
    کلید واژه ها: Saffron, Pregnancy, Infant, Teratogen, Mice
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Background and purpose: The purpose of the study was to asses the natural and clinical course

    of isolated ventricular defect in children.

    Materials and methods: Patients and Methods: From 1997 to 2011 we prospectively studied a

    total of 218 infants and children diagnosed as isolated ventricular septal defects. The Chi-squar or Fisher

    exact Test and ANOVA were used to compare the differences where appropriate. A valve less than 0.05

    was considered statistically significant. The patients who had an additional hemodynamic significant

    heart defect were excluded.

    Results: A total of 218 patients, 125 females VS 93 males (57% VS 43%) were followed up for the

    mean time of 55.7 months (Range 12-170 mo)

    The distribution of perimembranous, muscular, subarterial and inlet type VSD were 65.1%, 32.1%,

    1.4% and 1.4% respectively.

    Regardless of type of VSD, spontaneous closure was observed in 86 (39.5%) cases. Forty four (31%)

    perimembranous VSD and forty two (57.2%) muscular defect closed spontaneously. Inlet or subarterial

    defects were not closed spontaneously. Regardless of type VSDS, 71 (52.6%) of small and 15 (25%) of

    moderate size defect closed spontaneously.

    Fifty (24.3%) cases needed surgical Treatment. Aortic regurgitation developed in 11 (5%) patient.

    Infective endocarditis was observed in 3 (1.7%) in patients. Other complications were pulmonary

    hypertension in 39 (17.9%), congestive heart failure in 12 (5.5%), sub pulmonic stenosis in 16 (7.3%)

    mitral regurgitation in 6 (2.8%) and sub aortic ridge in 7 (3.2%) patients.

    Conclusion: It is concluded that patients with VSD should be followed closely through life because

    the complications such as pulmonary hypertension, Eisenmenger syndrome, infective endocarditic sub

    pulmonic stenosis, aortic ridge and aortic regurgitation may develop, although spontaneous closure of the

    defect is to be expected in many cases (39.51%), a significant percentage of defects may need surgical

    treatment (24.3%).

    نویسندگان: Mostafa Behjati-Ardakani,Mohammad Hossein Soltani,Razieh Dehghani-Firoozabadi
    کلید واژه ها: VSD, clinical course, complication
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Objective(s): Varicocele is associated with impaired testicular function and male infertility, but the molecular mechanisms by which fertility is affected have not been satisfactorily explained. The aim of our study was to investigate whether or not the polymerase gamma (POLG) polymorphism is associated with Iranian varicocele patients. Materials and Methods: We determined the POLG CAG repeat length in DNA samples extracted from 40 varicocele patients and 30 control subjects by PCR-denature polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sequencing. Results: The distribution of the CAG repeat length in varicocele patients showed no notable difference from that in control subjects, but we found a significant statistical inverse correlation between 10/10 and 10/#10 genotypes and varicocele grade. Conclusion: These findings indicate that POLG CAG repeats may affects the varicocele grade, but the mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

    نویسندگان: Heidari, M.M. , Khatami, M., Talebi, A.R.
    کلید واژه ها: CAG repeats length; Infertility; Mitochondria; POLG gene; Varicocele
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Introduction: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a major public health problem, usually occurs when an intracranial aneurysm ruptures and bleeds into the subarachnoid space. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as potential sources of cells for tissue repair in neurological deficits such as stroke. However, no information is available regarding the therapeutic potency of intravenously transplanted MSCs for SAH. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether therapy of MSCs transplantation may cause stem cell activation and improves neurological functional recovery after induction of SAH.
    Materials and Methods: Female rats were subjected to SAH, followed by an injection of 1x10(6) male rat MSCs or PBS into the tail vein 24 h after SAH. All animals received daily injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 50mg/kg, i.p.) for 13 days after treatment for labeling newborn cells. Animals were sacrificed at 14 days post SAH. Behavioral tests (Neurological Severity Score [NSS]) were performed before and at 1, 7, 14 days after SAH. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify MSCs and the cells derived from MSCs in SAH brains.
    Results: Significant functional recovery (P<0.05) were found in SAH animals infused with MSCs compared with PBS-treated rats. Significantly more BrdU-positive cells were located in the parietal lobe of MSCs-treated than in PBS-treated animals. MSCs were also seen to differentiate into glial cells (GFAP), neurons (Neu-N), and endothelial cells (vWF); thereby enhancing neuroplastic effects in the injured brain.
    Conclusion: The data suggests that intravenously transplanted MSCs improve functional recovery and enhancing neuroplastic effects after SAH in animal models. This is a promising novel procedure to repair CNS damage after SAH, and may provide a new way to induce plasticity in the injured brain cells.

    نویسندگان: KHALILI MOHAMMAD ALI,CLOWER B.R.,FINDIKLI N.,ANVARI M.,HEKMATI M.H.,SADEGHIAN F.,FESAHAT F.,MIRESMAEILI SEYED MOHSEN
    کلید واژه ها: MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, RATS
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Introduction: Nowadays, many researches are being conducted in order to evaluate the analgesic effects of

    different plants which have been used as sedative in traditional medicine. Solanum Melongena is a plant with

    different theories about its analgesic effects. In this experimental trial research, the effects of

    intraperitoneal(IP) injection of hydro-alcoholic extract of Solanum Melongena were assessed and compared

    with different doses of morphine and distilled water in Syrian mice.

    Methods: The effects of different doses of Solanum Melongena (1, 10, 100, and 1000μg/Kg), different

    doses of morphine sulfate (1, 2, and 4 μg/Kg) and distilled water on acute pain was assessed in Syrian mice.

    Tail flick latency after IP injection was measured for 75 minutes as the index of pain tolerance, using a tail

    flick apparatus which projects a condensed light stimulus on the animal's tail.

    Results: Our findings showed that different doses of Solanum increased analgesia index. This effect was

    more prominent in 45-60 minutes after IP injections which was significantly greater than the control group

    (p<0.05).

    Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the hydro-alcoholic extract of Solanum Melongena produces

    analgesic effect in a dose- related manner.

    نویسندگان: Rezaeisadrabadi M(MSc), Dashti-R MH(PhD), Anvari M(PhD), Falah-Tafti H(MSc), Zanbagh S(MSc)
    کلید واژه ها: Solanum Melongena; Morphine; Pain; Pain Threshold; Mice
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Introduction: Genetics counseling has an important role in preventing genetics

    abnormalities. These abnormalities have economical, social, psychological and emotional

    stresses on families and on community. Therefore, it is necessary to have careful programs

    to increase the knowledge of people about the importance of genetics counseling. In this

    study, the necessary cases of pre-marriage counseling, regarding, genetic diseases, were

    investigated.

    Methods: In this Cross-Sectional descriptive study, 272 couples who were referred to

    Yazd, Nikoopour center from March to July 2008 were investigated. A designed

    questionnaire was completed for all couples and a sample of their peripheral blood was

    taken for testing blood indices. The data were analyzed, using Chi-square test with 0.05%

    significance level.

    Results: Regarding consanguinity, 39 (14.3%) couples were close relatives. In 35 (12.9%)

    couples there were diseases in first degree relatives, that indicates the necessity of genetic

    counseling. These diseases were in the second degree relatives of 19 (7%) couples and in the

    third degree relatives of 58 (21.3%) couples. Overall, 127 (46.69%) couples were candidate

    for genetics counseling.

    Conclusion: This study indicated the importance of doing genetic counseling for the newly

    married couples. It is recommended that the responsible organizations inform the young

    people about the importance of genetic counseling.

    نویسندگان: M.H. Sheikhha, PhD E. Asadi Ghajarloo, BSc M. Shahali Ramesheh, BSc M. Faghihi, MSc A. Eghbal, BSc M. Alagheband, MSc F. Haghirosadat, PhD Student
    کلید واژه ها: Genetic Counseling – Consanguineous Marriage - Couples
  • خلاصه مقاله:

     

    براي انجام تحقيقات ژنتيك و همين طور آزمايشات تشخيص طبي جهت بيماريهايي كه منشاء ژنتيك DNA مقدمه: روشهاي استخراج

    و بررسي ژني در طول مراحل درمان، بعنوان يكي از DNA دارند حائز اهميت است. همچنين در مورد سرطانها استفاده از روشهاي استخراج

    و استخراج از چه نمونهاي بهترين نتيجه را مي دهد DNA روشهاي آزمايشگاهي مطرح ميباشد. حال بررسي آنكه كدام روش استخراج

    بسيار مهم خواهد بود.

    روش بررسي : در اين تحقيق از 5 نمونه مختلف شامل 1- خون 2- اسلايد مغز استخوان آرشيوي رنگ شده به روش گ يمسا 3- اسلايد

    خون محيطي آرشيوي رنگ شده به روش گ يمسا 4- اسلايد خون محيطي تازه رنگ شده به روش گ يمسا و 5- اسلايد خون محيطي رنگ

    Optimal ) استخراج شد . در اين تحقيق سه پارامتر كيفيت DNA ، نشده، با سه روش 1- نمك زدن 2- جوشاندن و 3- فنلكلروفرم

    مورد بررسي قرار گرفت. PCR:Polymerase Chain Reaction و بازدهي يا وضعيت (DNA كميت (غلظت ،(Density:OD

    1) و كمترين كيفيت در تمام نمونه هاي مورد بررسي با روش جوشاندن / نتايج: بهترين كيفيت در نمونه خون با روش نمك زدن ( 74

    بيشترين كميت DNA كيفيت مشابهي داشت. در مورد كميت DNA حاصل شد و در مورد اكثر نمونهها روش نمك زدن و فنل كلروفرم

    6.7 ) و فقط در مورد نمونه اسلايد رنگ نشده بيشترين كميت μg/ml) استخراج شده در تمام نمونهها مربوط به روش جوشاندن بود DNA

    مربوط به روش فنل كلروفرم بود . در حاليكه در برخي نمونه ها روش فنل كلروفرم و در برخي ديگر روش نمك زدن كمترين كميت

    استخراج شده نمونه خون با هر سه روش 100 % بازدهي را داشت. در DNA يا بازدهي PCR استخراجي را داشتند. در مورد وضعيت DNA

    حاليكه در نمونه هاي ديگر اسلايد مغز استخوان آرشيوي، اسلايد خون محيطي رنگ شده آرشيوي، اسلايد خون محيطي رنگ شده تازه و

    .(%72 ، %84 ، %88 ، % اسلايد خون محيطي رنگ نشده تازه بهترين بازدهي مربوط به روش جوشاندن بود( 100

    از نمونههاي اسلايدهاي مختلف به غير از نمونه اسلايد خون محيطي رنگ DNA نتيجهگيري: تحقيق حاضر نشان داد كه استخراج

    نخواهد داشت كه اين DNA نشده، نتايج خيلي مطلوبي دارد و ذخيره سازي اسلايد خون محيطي رنگ شده ت أثيري در نتيجه استخراج

    نتيجه براي مطالعات بعدي حائز اهميت است.

    نویسندگان: افروز اويسي ، دكتر سيد محمدرضا مرتضوي زاده ، دكتر مهدي ارجمند ، حسين فضلي ، دكتر محمدحسن شيخها
    کلید واژه ها: استخراج PCR ،DNA، اسلايد مغز استخوان، اسلايد رنگ شده به روش گيمسا
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Introduction: Ecstasy or 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine(MDMA) is a psychotropic and addictive

    substance that young people tend to use it to reduce their psychological and social tensions. The purpose of

    this study was to assess the influence of ecstasy consumption on the fetus of pregnant mice during the second

    and third weeks of pregnancy.

    Methods: 20 adult female mice were randomly selected(5 for control group and 15 for experimental

    group). Two intraperitoneal injections of ecstasy(5mg/Kg) was used in the experimental group, on 7th and

    14th days of pregnancy, while, in the control group, only distilled water was injected intraperitoneally. On

    18th day of pregnancy, mice were placed in separate cages. The condition of palate, skull, external ear, eye,

    fingers and toes and sindactily, weight, and fertility potentials of newborn mice were studied using stereo

    microscope.

    Results: From 163 newborn mice in two groups, no abnormalities were observed in the skull and the

    external ear. There wasn’t any significant difference between male and female sex ratio between two groups

    (p=.08). Hypoplasia of the fingers was significantly different between the two groups(p<0.001). The

    frequency of sindactily was not significantly different between two groups(p=0. 11). Female fertility

    potential was significantly different between two groups(p<0.001).

    Conclusion: Adminstration of ecstasy during pregnancy may affect the organogenesis and fertility potential

    of newborn mice. Therefore, more studies are needed in this regard.

    نویسندگان: Khalili M(PhD), Miresmaeili M(MSc), Malakoutian T(MD), Mostafavi Pour-Manshadi Y(MD)
    کلید واژه ها: N-Methyl -3, 4-methylenedioxymphetamine; Pregnancy; Animals; Litter Size/drag effects;Neurons/drug effects; Pregnancy Complication/drug effects; Organogenesis/drug effect
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Introdution: Presence of mentally retarded children as a source of pressure can jeopardize the general

    health of parents, especially mothers. The range of effect depends on the recognitive evaluation and the

    individual. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of coping-therapy on mental health of mothers

    with genetically and non genetically mentally retarded children referring to Yazd clinical center.

    Methods: This study was semi experimental and included 40 mothers with mentally retarded children

    studying in schools supported by the welfare organization of Yazd in 2009- 2010 and were selected by

    available sampling method. They were divided to two groups; case and control. Before any therapy, all of the

    mothers answered a general health questionnaire(GHQ28). In the next step, coping-therapy was performed

    on the case group. In the end, all of the mothers answered the same questionnaire(GHQ28) and data were

    analyzed by covariance method and t test.

    Results: The research indicated that coping-therapy has a positive effect on the mental health of mothers

    with genetically mentally retarded children. This effect is similar on mothers of children with non genetically

    mental retarded children. Coping-therapy decreases the somatic signs of depression in mothers and improves

    their sleeping and social efficacy. There was no association of age and educational level of mothers with

    coping-therapy.

    Conclusion: Coping-therapy can improve the mental health of mothers of both genetically and non

    genetically mentally retarded children

    نویسندگان: Alagheband M(MSc), Aghayousefi A(PhD), Kamali M(PhD), Dehestani M(PhD), Haghiroalsadat F(MSc),Nazari T(MSc), Sheikha MH(PhD)
    کلید واژه ها: Mental Health; Mentally Disabled Persons; Mental Retardation
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Purpose: The evaluation of epididymal sperm ultrastructure in chronic alcohol-consuming rats.

    Materials and Methods: 16 male mature Wistar rats with the same age of 10 weeks were

    categorized into two different groups. Control group included 8 rats allowed free access to rat chow

    and water. Experimental group included 8 rats with free access to rat chow and 5% ethanol in the

    same volume (50 cc daily) as controls that received water. After 30 days, epididymal spermatozoa

    from two groups were aspirated for sperm electron microscopic study.

    Results: No ultrastructural changes were observed in control group. In experimental animals, most

    of spermatozoa showed several alternations in their ultrastructures. Anomalies such as abnormal

    nuclear chromatin density, swollen area, rupture and lysis of plasmalemma, persistence of

    numerous cytoplasmic droplets, mitochondrial swelling and vaculization, absence of axonemal

    microtubules, complete degeneration of axoneme, deletion of one or more outer dense fibers as well

    as absence of tail plasmalemma were seen in majority of the alcohol-treated spermatozoa.

    Conclusions: Spermatozoa from alcohol consuming rats show spectrum of anomalies in their head,

    middle and principle piece of tail. These may be one of the possible causes of subfertility or

    infertility due to alcohol consumption.

    نویسندگان: Talebi A.R.,Ph.D., Abbasi Sarcheshmeh A., M.Sc., Dehghan M., M.Sc.,Nayeri M., B.Sc., Hoseini A., Ph.D.
    کلید واژه ها: Spermatozoa, Ultrastructure, Anomalies, Alcohol consumption
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Background: ART laboratories are quality controlled to make sure that disposable objects used for the culture of gametes and embryos are toxin-free. To maintain a high standard, all disposable objects in our ART laboratory were tested by human sperm motility assay (HuSMA). HuSMA was used as a measure for QC at the intended ART laboratory. 
    Methods: Eighteen objects that are commonly used in IVF laboratories were tested by HuSMA. The objects included gloves, syringes, culture dishes, pipettes, tips and semen collection dishes. HuSMA was conducted at 10 and 30 minutes and also at 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours of incubation at room temperature. Sperm motility index (SMI) was calculated by dividing the percentage of progressive motile sperms of the test by that of the control at the specified intervals. An SMI value < 0.85 was defined to indicate sperm toxicity. The tests were repeated for three times. 
    Results: QC by HuSMA confirmed the toxicity of three objects, including embryo transfer (ET) gloves A and B, and puncture gloves A. ET gloves A (SMI=0.0) and puncture gloves A (SMI=0.0) were toxic after 10 minutes, but ET gloves B (SMI=0.63) were shown to be toxic after 24 hours (46% progressive motile sperm compared with 68% in the control group). Moreover, two other objects including culture dish (SMI=0.42) and semen collection dish (SMI=0.67) had borderline values after 24 hours; different results in four repeats after 24 hours (twice toxic and twice nontoxic).
    Conclusion: Some objects which are routinely used in ART laboratories may be toxic and their use should be discontinued as part of QC programs. To increase the efficiency of HuSMA, it seems necessary to do this test more than once for each object.

    نویسندگان: Sare Ashourzadeh، Azam Agha-Rahimi، Mohammad Ali Khalili
    کلید واژه ها: ART, Human, Laboratory, Quality control, Sperm motility, Toxicity tests
  • خلاصه مقاله:

    Aim: In this study the toxic effect of the three anti hypertensive drugs (atenolol, propranolol and

    diltiazem) on hepatocytes were investigated.

    Materials and Methods: The 8 weeks old adult male NMRI mice were fed with or without the drugs

    for 1 month. Mice were divided into 4 groups that received atenolol (50 mg/kg/daily), propranolol (80

    mg/kg/daily), and diltiazem (180 mg/kg/daily). Food access was stoped 12 to 15 h before the mice

    were sacrificed and processed for light and transmission electron microscopic evaluation. In addition

    modified Hepatitis Activity Index was computed too.

    Results: In the control group no pathological sign was observed. Main histological changes such as

    portal infiltration of lymphocytes and piecemeal necrosis in all three experimental groups as well as

    expanded necrosis in proparanolol group were seen. In addition electron microscopic imaging

    indicated an increase in the level of free ribosomes and glycogen droplets in the experimental groups.

    Also in the mice treated with propranolol group mitochondria membrane disruption were seen,

    whereas in the group treated with diltiazem, the mitochondrial cristae and endoplasmic reticulum

    Disintegration could be observed.

    Conclusion: Chronic oral administration of atenolol, propranolol and diltiazem in male mice caused

    hepatotoxicity. The most pathological effects were observed in the group treated with diltiazem,

    though electrone microscopic imaging indicated the propranolol and dilitiazem were more toxic than

    the other one.

    نویسندگان: Zamani R, Anvari M, Akhavan Tafti M, Vahidi AR
    کلید واژه ها: Atenolol, Propranolol, Diltiazem, Liver tissue, Electron microscopy
  • Summary:

     

    Authors: Mastenbroek S, van der Veen F, Aflatoonian A, Shapiro B, Bossuyt P, Repping S
    Keywords: assisted reproduction; embryo transfer; embryo quality; IVF; ICSI outcome
  • Summary:
    This prospective study evaluated the efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol in comparison with the GnRH agonist protocol in the first cycle of assisted reproductive technique (ART).

    Methods

    We randomized 235 patients undergoing ART for the first time. The first group was stimulated with a standard long protocol and the second group stimulated with GnRH antagonis.

    Results

    There was no statistically significant difference in the age, infertility cause, basal FSH, BMI, the number of oocytes retrieved, number of M2 oocytes, embryo obtained and endometrial thickness between the two groups. But Serum estradiol, consumption of gonadotropins and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were significantly lower in the antagonist protocol. Cancellation rate of embryo transfer due to poor-quality embryo in the antagonist protocol was higher, but it was not significant. There was no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy between the two groups.

    Conclusion

    GnRH-antagonist is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated alternative to agonist in the first cycle of ART
    Authors: Original Article Comparing GnRH agonist long protocol and gnrh antagonist protocol in outcome the first cycle of ART Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Shahnaz Ahmadi, Homa Oskouian and Robab Davar
    Keywords: GnRH antagonist - GnRH agonist - Pregnancy rate - Assisted reproductive technology - Ovarian stimulation
  • Summary:

    Purpose To compare the IVF outcome of clomiphene citrate/gonadotropin/antagonist (mild protocol) and microdose GnRH agonist flare protocols for poor responders undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    Methods 159 poor responder patients were randomized and ovarian stimulation was performed with clomiphene citrate, gonadotropin and antagonist (group I) or microdose GnRH agonist flare (group II) protocols. Main outcome was clinical pregnancy rate and secondary outcomes were doses of gonadotropin administration and duration of stimulation.

    Results There were no significant differences in age, causes of infertility, basal FSH, BMI, duration of infertility, E(2) level on the day of hCG injection in both groups. Although the cancellation, fertilization, and clinical pregnancy rates were similar in both groups, the endometrial thickness, number of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes and implantation rate were significantly higher in mild protocol. The doses of gonadotropin administration and duration of stimulation were significantly lower in mild protocol.

    Conclusion We recommend mild protocol in assisted reproductive technology cycles for poor responders based on our results regarding less doses of used gonadotropin and a shorter duration of stimulation.

    Authors: Karimzadeh, MA (Karimzadeh, Mohammad Ali); Mashayekhy, M (Mashayekhy, Mehri); Mohammadian, F (Mohammadian, Farnaz); Moghaddam, FM (Moghaddam, Fatemeh Mansoori)
    Keywords: Poor responders; GnRH agonist; GnRH antagonist; Clomiphene citrate; IVF outcome
  • Summary:

    Infertility is defined as the inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of regular, unprotected intercourse. However infertility is a clinical presentation and not a disease. Thus to be able to offer a new classification, it is necessary to apply a clinical presentation (philosophy) suggested by the University of Calgary in 1991. In recent years several classification algorithms have been proposed which apply key predictors of clinical, imaging, or morphological types to determine the diseases that can cause infertility. On the other hand, an algorithm is a product of an expert's mind after many years of practice and experience, which is too difficult to understand by a medical student. However there has not been any simple schematic classification based on a logical justification applying integration of etiologies with basic science to break down etiologies into categories, subcategories and disease classes of this clinical presentation. Because etiology has also become an important criterion for the characterization of causes of infertility, a classification proposal is presented here that attempts to include all relevant (basic science) features of the causative diseases of this clinical presentation.

    Authors: Aflatoonian, A (Aflatoonian, A.); Baghianimoghadam, B (Baghianimoghadam, B.); Partovi, P (Partovi, P.); Abdoli, A (Abdoli, A.); Hemmati, P (Hemmati, P.)2; Tabibnejad, N (Tabibnejad, N.)1; Dehghani, M (Dehghani, M.)3
    Keywords: Infertility; Clinical presentation; Etiology; Classification
  • Summary:

    Introduction: Patients who are suffering from pain usually seeking for medicinal recommendations about their nutritional regime. One of the most contraindicated vegetative regarding pain modulation is Solanum Melongena. In this study we conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of Solanum Melongena hydro-alcoholic extract on acute and chronic pain models in male mice. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 70 male mice divided into 14 groups. Formalin test was used for chronic and tail flick test for acute pain assessments. In each category 3 test groups were administered 3 different doses of extract (10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg), 3 positive control groups received 3 different doses of morphine sulfate (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg). Distilled water was injected to animals in the remaining negative control group in each category.Results: In tail flick test the analgesia index in test groups was dose dependently greater than the negative control group and the differences were significant at 45 to 60 min after the drug administration (p < 0.05). The analgesia index was the same as 4 mg/kg morphine sulfate (p > 0.05). Conclusion: According to our findings solanum extract in a dose dependent manner led to relieve acute pain in mice.vvv

    Authors: Dashti-r, MH (Dashti-r, Mohammad Hossein); Anvari, M (Anvari, Morteza); Rezaei-s, M (Rezaei-s, Mohammad)
    Keywords: Solanum Melongena; Tail flick test; Acute pain; Mice
  • Summary:

    About 10% of infertile men have azoospermia. After the introduction of microinjection [intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)], many of these men obtain the chance to be a father. But still in many cases of nonobstructive azoospermia, we are not able to find spermatozoa for ICSI. Medications may be able to increase the chance of finding spermatozoa in testis samples. So in this study, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen citrate on the results of sperm recovery from testis tissue in infertile men with nonobstructive azoospermia. Thirty-two azoospermic infertile men with proved nonobstructive azoospermia were selected. Tamoxifen was administered for 3 months. Semen samples and in the cases of azoospermia second testis biopsy were taken, and the results were compared with the first samples. According to first testis samples, 13 patients had hypospermatogenesis, 9 had maturation arrest and 10 patients sertoli cell syndrome. After tamoxifen treatment, six patients showed spermatozoa in their ejaculates. From other patients all in hypospermatogenesis group, 75% in maturation arrest group and 20% in sertoli cell group showed spermatozoa in their second testis samples. Our study showed that treatment of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia with anti-oestrogenic drugs like tamoxifen can improve the results of sperm recovery in testis samples and also increase the chance of pregnancy by microinjection.

    Authors: M.-R. Moein, N. Tabibnejad, J. Ghasemzadeh
    Keywords: Azoospermia;male infertility;microinjection;tamoxifen
  • Summary:

    Objective: This study was performed to determine the effect of antenatal corticosteroid the interval between administration and delivery affect on neonatal outcomes. Material and Methods: An observational study was performed on all deliveries between 28-34 weeks gestation where delivery occurred vaginally after completing a single course of antenatal corticosteroid (dexamethasone). Women were divided into 3 groups on the basis of the interval from first corticosteroid dose to delivery (<2 days, 2-7 and >7 days). The primary outcome was the need for neonatal resuscitation and the secondary outcome was respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which was described as "need for ventilation with positive pressure O2 during the first 24 hrs of life". P value <0.05 was significant. Results: Of 104 neonates whose mothers received a full course of antenatal corticosteroid, 29 delivered <2 days, 41 delivered 2-7 days, and 34 delivered more than 7 days after the initial dose. Overall, those delivering within 2 days after the first injection of corticosteroid had more need for resuscitation and ventilation than those infants delivering between 2-7 days and after 7 days. Infants delivering between 2-7 days had a lower incidence of need for resuscitation and receiving respiratory support for more than 24 hours. Conclusion: We found that the interval between corticosteroid administration and delivery influences the incidence of need for resuscitation and ventilation. Infants delivering less than 2 days of corticosteroid exposure have a higher frequency of need for resuscitation and ventilation than delivering between 2-7 days and after 7 days.

    Authors: Sekhavat, L. , Firouzabadi, R.D., Karbasi, S.A
    Keywords: Corticosteroids; Need to resuscitation; Preterm delivery; Ventilation
  • Summary:

    Objective

    To evaluate the efficacy of calcium & vitamin D supplementation in infertile women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to assess levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in these patients.

    Methods

    In a case control study, 100 infertile PCOS women based on a randomly divided into two groups. Group I (n = 50) were treated with metformin 1500 mg/day, and group II (n = 50) treated with metformin 1500 mg/day plus Calcium 1000 mg/day and Vitamin D 100000 IU/month for 6 months. Patients were followed by transvaginal sonography at first, 3 and 6 months later for evaluating dominant follicle.

    BMI, menstrual regularity, follicle diameter, pregnancy, serum 25-OH-vitamin D level were matured and compared in two groups.

    Results

    BMI decreased almost significantly (25.49 ± 1.88 vs 26.28 ± 2.15, p: 0.054) in group II. A better improvement was gained in regulating menstrual abnormalities (70% vs 58%, p: 0.211), follicle maturation (28% vs 22%,p: 0.698), and infertility (18% vs 12%, p: 0.401) in group II compared with group I, but these results were not statistically significant. Eighty three percent of all the PCOS patients showed vitamin D deficiency while 35% were severely deficient. The serum 25-OH-vitamin D mean levels were 13.38 ± 6.48 ng/ml. Vitamin D deficiency was recompensed in 74% of the PCOS patients who had taken calcium & vitamin D supplementation. There was no correlation between BMI and 25-OH-VD before and after the treatment (p ≥ 0.01).

    Conclusion

    This study showed the positive effects of calcium & vitamin D supplementation on weight loss, follicle maturation, menstrual regularity, and improvement of hyperandrogenism, in infertile women with PCOS.

    Authors: Raziah dehghani Firouzabadia, Abbas Aflatooniana, Seyedehzalfa Modarresib, Leila Sekhavatc, Somayeh MohammadTaherid
    Keywords: Polycystic ovary syndrome; Calcium; Vitamin D; Metformin
  • Summary:

    Detection of chromosomal aneuploidies using fetal cells isolated from maternal blood, for prenatal non-invasive genetic investigation, has been a long-sought goal of clinical genetics to replace amniocentesis and chorionic villous sampling to avoid any risk to the fetus. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific new assay for diagnosing aneuploidy with circulating fetal cells isolated from maternal blood as previously reported using two novel approaches: (i) simultaneous immunocytochemistry (ICC) evaluation using a monoclonal antibody for i-antigen, followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); (ii) dual-probe FISH analysis of interphase nuclei using two differently labeled probes, specific for different loci of chromosomes 21 and 18; in addition, short tandem repeats (STR) analysis on single cells isolated by micromanipulation was applied to confirm the presence of fetal cells in the cell sample enriched from maternal blood. Blood samples were obtained from women carrying trisomic fetuses, and from non-pregnant women and men as controls. Using ICC–FISH approach, a large heterogeneity in immunostaining pattern was observed, which is a source of very subjective signal interpretation. Differently, dual-probe FISH analysis provided for a correct diagnosis of all pregnancies: the mean percentage of trisomic cells was 0.5% (range, 0.36–0.76%), while the mean percentage of trisomic cells in the control group (normal pregnancies or non-pregnant women) was ≤0.20%. The application of the dual-probe FISH protocol on fetal cells isolated from maternal blood enables accurate molecular detection of fetal aneuploidy, thus providing a foundation for development of non-invasive prenatal diagnostic testing.

    Authors: Calabrese G, Baldi M, Fantasia D, Teresa Sessa M, Kalantar M, Holzhauer C, Alunni-Fabbroni M, Palka G, Sitar G
    Keywords: circulating fetal cells;Down syndrome;FISH;maternal blood;prenatal diagnosis
  • Summary:

    Objectives: to present our first experience in scheme development based on CPC philosophy in Iran.

    Hypothesis: One of the most important reasons of an obvious gap between medical education and professional expectations (outcomes) encountered by recent medical graduates is due to applying conventional curricula, which rely on hypothetical-deductive reasoning model. The University of Calgary has implemented a new curriculum which is organized according to 125 ways in which patients may present to a physician. In this study we will present our first experience in scheme development based on CPC philosophy in Iran.

    Methods: In 2007, research and clinical center for infertility (Yazd University of medical sciences, IRAN), began developing a full module for infertility (lesson plan) with fourteen components based on the new curricular philosophy. We recruited a scheme of infertility according to a specific way.

    Results: Thus, at the first step of the module creation, a scheme was made as the most important mainstay of presentation module, i.e. a structured scheme that includes all causative diseases of infertility.

    Conclusions: Any effort in the organization of knowledge around schemes including in the domain of infertility would be valuable to meet some of the standards of WFME. Also, development of modules, by the teams composed of experts and students, can improve the quality of medical education.

    Authors: A Aflatoonian, B Baghianimoghadam,A Abdoli, P Partovi, P Hemmati, N Tabibnejad, and P Harasym
    Keywords: CPC, scheme, infertility, backward reasoning, forward reasoning
  • Summary:

    Ultrasound has become essential in the diagnosis and management of the infertile female. Transvaginal ultrasonography provides a detailed examination of the uterus and ovaries. Evaluation of the infertile female has become increasingly more detailed in recent years because of technologic advancements as vaginal ultrasonography is the first step in assessment of pelvic infertile female.

    Authors: Aflatoonian, A.a , Mashayekhy, M.b
    Keywords: Adenomyosis; Endometrial polyp; Endometrial thickness; Endometrioma; Hydrosalpinx; Leiomyoma
  • Summary:

    Alcohol abuse is considered as one of the problems associated with poor semen production and sperm quality. Both acute and chronic alcohol consumption may affect spermatozoal chromatin disorders through apoptosis. Therefore, for the first time, this experimental study was performed to evaluate the effect of ethanol consumption on sperm parameters and chromatin integrity of spermatozoa aspirated from cauda epididymis of rats. Twenty adult Wistar rats were divided into ethanol consumption and control groups. Access to ethanol and water was provided ad libitum for experimental and control animals, respectively. The cauda epididymal spermatozoa were aspirated for analysis of sperm parameters and sperm chromatin integrity with aniline blue (AB), chromomycin A3 (CMA3), toluidine blue (TB), and acridine orange (AO) assays. Sperm progressive and nonprogressive motility of ethanol-consuming rats were significantly decreased compared with control animals (P < .05). In addition, the rates of AB-reacted spermatozoa were similar in both groups (P > .05). However, with regard to CMA3, AO, and TB stainings, there was a significant increase in ethanol group when compared with the controls (P < .05). The majority of TB+ and AO+ spermatozoa were higher than "cut-off" value in ethanol group, whereas the mean rates of CMA3+ spermatozoa was below the "cut-off" value in both groups. The results showed that ethanol consumption disturbs sperm motility, nuclear maturity and DNA integrity of spermatozoa in rat. Therefore, ethanol abuse results in the production of spermatozoa with less condensed chromatin, and this may be one possible cause of infertility following ethanol consumption. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Authors: Talebi, AR (Talebi, Ali Reza); Sarcheshmeh, AA (Sarcheshmeh, Abolghasem Abbasi); Khalili, MA (Khalili, Mohammad Ali); Tabibnejad, N (Tabibnejad, Nasim)
    Keywords: Chromatin condensation; DNA integrity; Rat; Spermatozoa; Ethanol consumption; Cytochemical tests
  • Summary:

    Objective: Because benign and malignant cervical and ovarian masses occur with different percentages in different age groups, the importance of primary diagnosis and selection of a suitable surgical procedure is underlined. Diagnosis of pelvic masses is carried out using ultrasound, physical examination, CT scan and MRI. The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of CT scan in pelvic masses in comparison with physical examination-ultrasound based on pathology of the lesion in patients undergoing laparotomic surgery. Methods: This analytic-descriptive study focused on age, sonographic findings, physical examinations, CT scan and pathological findings in 139 patients with pelvic mass, gathered with questionnaires and statistically analayzed using the SPSS software programme. Results: Of 139 patients with pelvic mass(patients aged from 17 to 75 years old), 62 (44%) cases were diagnosed as benign and 77(55.4%) as malignant; among them malignant tratoma serocyst adenocarsinoma with 33 (23.7%) cases and benign myoma with 21(15.2%) cases comprised the most frequent cases. The sensitivity and specificity of sonography-physical examination were 51.9% and 87.9% respectively and the sensitivity and specificity of CT scan images were 79.2% and 91.6% respectively. It was shown that CT scan images were more consistant with pathological findings in predicting appropriate surgical procedures than do sonography-physical examinations. Conclusion: The sensitivity of CT scan is far higher than that of sonography-physical examination in the diagnosis of pelvic mass malignancy.

    Authors: Firoozabadi, RD (Firoozabadi, Razieh Dehghani); Zarchi, MK (Zarchi, Mojgan Karimi); Mansurian, HR (Mansurian, Hamid Reza); Moghadam, BR (Moghadam, Bita Rafiei); Teimoori, S (Teimoori, Soraya); Naseri, A (Naseri, Ali)
    Keywords: CT scan; physical examination; sonography; pathology; surgical procedures; pelvic masses
  • Summary:

    Objectives: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has become an established and increasingly

    successful form of treatment for infertility. However, significant numbers of cycles fail after embryo

    transfer (ET) and it becomes necessary to follow up the infertile couples after failed ART treatments.

    The main goal was to follow up the infertile patients after failed IVF/ICSI+ET treatments in Iran and

    Turkey.

    Study design: 198 infertile couples from Iran and 355 infertile couples from Turkey were followed up

    after IVF/ICSI failures. The patients’ demographic data, the couples’ decisions about continuation of

    treatment and the spontaneous pregnancy rates were compared in the two countries.

    Results: The drop-out rate was higher in Iran (28.3%) than in Turkey (23.4%). The reasons for treatment

    discontinuation in Iran and Turkey were: financial problem (33.9% vs. 41%), hopeless (10.7% vs. 22.9%),

    fear of drug side-effects (7.1% vs. 12%), achieving pregnancy (37.5% vs. 19.6%), child adoption (5.4% vs.

    2.4%), lack of spouse cooperation (5.4% vs. 2.4%), and divorce (0% vs. 2.4%). Spontaneous pregnancy was

    significantly higher in Iran (10.1%) than in Turkey (3.9%). There was correlation between duration of

    infertility and female factor infertility with spontaneous pregnancy.

    Conclusions: Since the majority of couples that discontinued treatment had financial problems, it is

    essential for health professionals to support infertile couples during their childlessness crisis.

    Authors: Mohammad Ali Khalili , Semra Kahraman , Mete Gurol Ugur
    Keywords: ART, Follow-up, Infertility, Pregnancy, Iran, Turkey
  • Summary:

    AIM:

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene polymorphism at Position 680 and the outcomes of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in infertile women.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS:

    One hundred and eight patients under 35 years of age who underwent IVF-ET procedures were included in this study. The hormonal profile and treatment of all patients were analyzed and FSHR polymorphism was examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Women from all groups were classified based on polymorphisms at Position 680, occupied either by asparagines (Asn) or serine (Ser) as Asn/Asn, Asn/Ser, and Ser/Ser genotype.

    RESULT:

    Our study showed that all patients in the Asn/Asn group were normal responders and in the Asn/Ser group 64.8% were normal responders and 21.1% and 14.1% were poor and hyper responders respectively. In the Ser/Ser group we did not have normal responders and 46.7% of these patients were poor responders and 53.3% were hyper responders.

    CONCLUSION:

    FSH receptor polymorphism is correlated with response to ovarian stimulation.

    Authors: Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Maryam Eftekhar, and Seyed Mehdi Kalantar
    Keywords: Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, ovarian response, ovarian stimulation, polymorphisms
  • Summary:

    OBJECTIVE:

    To compare the efficacy of Laminaria tents with Misoprostol for cervical ripening before surgical process in missed abortion.

    METHOD:

    In a prospective study, 70 women with missed abortion were assigned to have either insertion of a 3 mm intracervical Laminaria tent (n = 35) or vaginal Misoprostol 400 μg (n = 35) on the day prior to suction dilation and curettage (D/C). The women were interviewed just prior to the D/C with regard to pain, vaginal bleeding, and cervical dilator preference.

    RESULT:

    Cervical dilation was greater in the Laminaria group but not significantly different from that in the Misoprostol group. However, additional cervical dilation before D/C was required in more patients in the Misoprostol group (45.7 vs 14.3%, P = 0.001). Women who received Laminaria reported significantly more pain at the time of insertion (62.8% in Laminaria group vs 22.8% in Misoprostol group) compared with women who received Misoprostol. Conversely, Misoprostol was associated with more nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and vaginal bleeding.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Laminaria tents are more effective cervical dilators than vaginal Misoprostol when inserted the day prior to suction D and C. Vaginal Misoprostol insertion is more comfortable, although it is associated with an increased risk of vaginal bleeding.

    Authors: Raziah Dehghani Firouzabadi • Leila Sekhavat •Afsar Tabatabaii • Sedighah Hamadani
    Keywords: Missed abortion  Laminaria  Misoprostol Cervical dilation
  • Summary:

    Purpose Comparing the effects of metformin or orlistat on

    hormone, lipid profile and ovulation status in obese women

    with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Methods A total of 80 women were prospectively recruited

    to receive either metformin (n=40) or orlistat (n=40).

    Weight, BMI, waist, serum LH, total serum testosterone

    and lipid profile were assessed at baseline and after

    3 months. The subjectsovulatory status was assessed after

    3 months.

    Results There was no significant difference in ovulation

    between the two treatment groups (30% vs 15%).

    Treatment with either drug showed a significant decline

    in body weight, BMI (Body Mass Index), and waist

    circumference, but the degree of decline in both groups

    was the same. Patients who were treated with orlistat,

    showed a significant reduction in total testosterone and

    serum lipid. Women in metformin group showed a

    significant reduction in serum LH.

    Conclusions Both metformin and orlistat showed a similar

    effect on weight loss and ovulation rates.

    Authors: Metformin . Orlistat . PCOS .Weight loss .Waist circumference
    Keywords: Metformin; Orlistat; PCOS; Weight loss; Waist circumference
  • Summary:

    The effect of an alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was surveyed on cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. A subcutaneous inoculation of Leishmania (L) major at the dorsal base of the tail produced swelling, inflammation, stiffness, redness and sore. As soon as symptoms appeared, the ointment was used on the wound of mice as a treatment (the seeds were dried and crushed into coarse powder. Five hundred grams of the powder were extracted with ethanol 95% v/v. The extract was concentrated under reduced pressure of 22 to 26 mmHg at 45 degrees C, then 40, 60 and 80% of Nigella sativa seed extract were prepared in ointment base). As the animals were weighed by the scales, lesion development was monitored every other day with a direct-reading vernier caliper gauge. This monitoring continued to the death of the last mice in the control group. Then the spleens of mice in each group were measured and controlled. Weight loss or stoppage was not observed in any of the case group mice. But the wound diameter in all case groups was smaller, compared to the control group. Swelling, inflammation, stiffness, redness, necrosis and secondary infection were less in the case group mice compared to the control group mice. So, these results indicate that the alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa, showed a significant anti-cutaneous leishmanial activity and this validates the traditional use of the plant in fungal infections.

    Authors: Bafghi, AF (Bafghi, Ali Fattahi); Vahidi, AR (Vahidi, Ali Reza); Anvari, MH (Anvari, Mohammad Hossein); Barzegar, K (Barzegar, Kazem); Ghafourzadeh, M (Ghafourzadeh, Mahin)
    Keywords: Leishmania (L) major; alcoholic extract; antileishmania; BALB/c mice
  • Summary:

    PURPOSE:

    The aim of our study was to compare the transfer of embryos that are cryopreserved in cleavage stage after thawing with the transfer of embryos after thawing and culture in sequential media until blastocyst formation.

    METHODS:

    In this prospective clinical study, we have evaluated 134 cycles of ART treatment for infertility. Frozen embryos were thawed and then cultured in sequential media until blastocyst stage in blastocyst group and were compared with thawed embryos in cleavage stage group.

    RESULTS:

    Implantation rate was significantly higher in blastocyst group (30 %) compared to cleavage group (17 %). No statistical differences were reported in chemical and clinical pregnancy rates between groups. Ongoing pregnancy rate was significantly higher in blastocyst group compared to cleavage group (42.9 vs. 24.6 %).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Our results indicated that blastocyst formation after thawing of cleavage stage embryos is a good predictor for embryo viability and pregnancy outcome.

    Authors: Eftekhar M, Aflatoonian A, Mohammadian F, Tabibnejad N
    Keywords: Blastocyst  Cryopreserved embryo Cleavage embryo  Pregnancy outcome
  • Summary:

    Early diagnosis and management of strabismus is needed to avoid complications such as amblyopia. In this retrospective cohort study we reviewed the profile and surgical outcome of vertical strabismus patients attending a clinic in Yazd city in the Islamic Republic of Iran. From the medical files of 265 patients, 19.2% were found to have pure vertical deviation and 80.8% had combined horizontal and vertical strabismus. Congenital causes were recorded for 83.0% of cases and 24.9% had a family history of strabismus. Hypertropia (91.7%) was more common than hypotropia (8.3%). There was a statistically significant relationship between age at onset and vertical strabismus. Female patients had a higher rate of congenital vertical strabismus than did male patients. There was no significant association between surgery outcomes and sex or age of onset of strabismus. Early diagnosis and management in affected families and screening of patients with strabismus family history is needed.

    Authors: Besharati, M.R. , Mahdavi, M., Ghasemi, N.
    Keywords: adolescent; article; Brown syndrome; cohort analysis; congenital disorder; conjunctival hemorrhage; conjunctivitis; conservative treatment; controlled study; diplopia; early diagnosis; eye surgery; family history; female; health care management; human; Iran; major clinical study; male; mass screening; onset age; patient coding; retrospective study; sex difference; surgical technique; treatment outcome; vertical strabismus